Mar 19, 2024

How AI can support neurodivergent caseworkers

We’re building technology to make all caseworkers' lives easier - potentially with an outsized uplift for neurodivergent caseworkers

Angela Bradbury

Pressure on public services has really ramped up in recent years. 6 councils have gone bust. Age UK is declaring a human rights crisis. 91% of UK social workers are experiencing ‘moderate to high emotional exhaustion’.

Today, on World Social Work Day, in Neurodiversity Celebration Week, we explore how we can help.

What is neurodiversity? How does it relate to casework?

Neurodiversity is about how people’s brains work differently. How it affects their strengths and challenges. How it affects their interactions with others and their environment. The majority of the population are neurotypical, which means their brains generally function in the way society expects. Around 1 in 7 of the population are thought to be neurodivergent. This encompasses ADHD, autism, dyslexia, dyspraxia and others. In fact, overlap between these is probably the rule rather than the exception.

Neurodivergent caseworkers may experience a range of struggles in a work environment set up for neurotypical people, for example:

  • Having a ‘spiky skills profile’ - the opposite of being an all-rounder. They are likely to have notable strengths in certain areas but struggle with things that neurotypical people might consider to be simple.
  • Sensory sensitivities - finding certain lighting, noise, temperature or other environmental factors to be overwhelming.
  • Executive function & self-regulation - struggling with planning, focused attention, remembering and juggling multiple tasks.

But there are huge benefits from having a neurodiverse workforce:

  • Social work often deals with clients with diverse needs. Having a diverse workforce should enable the service to be better informed and more empathetic.
  • Neurodivergent people are often more detail-oriented, can be more thorough, and have periods of hyperfocus.
  • Many neurodivergent people are hyper-empathetic. Social work requires paying close attention to a client’s needs.
  • Bringing creative approaches to problem-solving. This can be a huge asset in contexts where clients have complex issues and few resources.

Anecdotally, we’ve heard that neurodivergence is more prevalent amongst caseworkers than in the broader population. It’s hard to find stats on this. But it’s worth considering that neurodivergent folks have often worked extra hard throughout their life to understand social interactions and norms. Through this, they may have built particular skills around relational work, and seek to utilise those in their profession.

What adjustments might support neurodivergent caseworkers?

Caseworkers deal with reams and reams of case notes: reading notes on a client before talking to them, typing up notes after a meeting, writing emails to follow up and so on.

This can feel like drowning in case notes and the never-ending flow of incoming clients’ needs. One caseworker used the phrase ‘name soup’ to describe looking at a list of cases on a computer system. If you’re neurodivergent, these negative feelings can be amplified: a recent pilot study, Neurodiversity and Social Work, listed lack of confidence, anxiety, and feeling ‘resigned’ as common concerns.

Examples of adjustments that can help include:

  • adapted content formats (e.g. case notes displayed as bullet points or diagrams)
  • ‘translating’ text into plain language
  • text-to-speech and speech-to-text tools
  • assistance with task prioritisation, reminders and time management

Employers do have a legal duty to make reasonable adjustments, but only where they are aware of an employee’s disability or impairment. In the pilot study, more than half of the respondents said they had not received specialist support. The most common reason was fear of speaking out. A common theme was around lack of understanding of neurodiversity amongst colleagues.

As a result, many neurodivergent caseworkers in the study did not ‘feel able to contribute and optimise their potential in their roles’. This is against a backdrop of a staffing crisis in social work, with record levels of resignations, turnover and vacancies.

Why and how can AI help?

Large language models (LLMs) are transforming what is possible. At HelpFirst we use LLMs to condense and summarise text - tasks at which LLMs excel.

Summarising doesn’t just have to be long to short. It can also be visual, for example HelpFirst Risk Alerts:

Risk factors automatically displayed as rollover icons

Or, it can be graphical, for example the HelpFirst score:

Cases automatically triaged from long form case notes

The result is that caseworkers can see their cases at a glance. This is useful for everyone, but we’ve had especially positive feedback from caseworkers who identify as neurodivergent. Once an organisation implements HelpFirst’s CRM plugin, it’s available to everyone, without employees needing to ‘out’ themselves as being neurodivergent.

In our work with Citizens Advice Scotland, this has been one of the pleasant surprises. A problem that we weren’t planning to solve, but which is turning out to be a really valuable side-effect.

Get in touch via to chat about how HelpFirst could support your team.

The Priority Services Register (PSR) is a key tool that energy suppliers use to fulfil their responsibilities to vulnerable customers. But there isn't just one register. Every energy company has their own PSR and the application forms vary unpredictably from supplier to supplier. 

As part of our CivTech Challenge, we’ve been researching best practice across the industry. We were left with lots of questions:

  • Why is 'restricted hand movement' a vulnerability that almost all suppliers assess?
  • Why are archaic phrases like ‘bedridden’ used?
  • Why does only one supplier check if their vulnerable customers use ‘electric showering’? 

Alas, we weren't able to fully answer these questions. But here’s a visual guide to various PSR forms, so you can get an overview of the landscape.  


We accessed PSR application forms for Ovo Energy, British Gas, SSE, Octopus, EDF, Shell and Utilita. For many other suppliers, access is restricted.

The first observation is that the application forms are extremely varied: 

  • We’ve grouped questions into categories to make things a bit easier to read, however the forms themselves come in very different structures.  Some offer all their options in one long list, some separate into smaller sections.  Some only show certain sections once a customer has selected a particular option (e.g. selecting ‘sight loss’ gets you extra questions on the Shell application).
  • Several vulnerabilities are only mentioned by one supplier. Only one asks about autism, and another asks about breathing difficulties. The following options only showed up once: ‘female presence preferred’, ‘longer time to answer the door’ and ‘bedridden’.
  • For sensory needs: ‘blind’ and ‘partially sighted’ are separate options in all the forms. 'Hearing impairment' and 'deaf' are combined in half the forms and the former is not asked at all in one. This may be contentious, as hearing impairment and being deaf are very different conditions.
  • Some suppliers include options for accessible information provision in the same form (i.e. braille, large print letters, etc.) Others link to an additional form, or do not reference it at all.
  • When temporary conditions are mentioned, only some suppliers allow the customer to select a date when they believe the condition will no longer apply.
  • Most of the forms are multiple choice, limiting to what the supplier chooses to ask about.  Occasionally the supplier (e.g. EDF) gives the customer a larger space to talk about their conditions, equipment and needs in more detail.

Next, we dive deeper into the application forms.

Medical Conditions2

Question asked
Question asked (with variations)
Question not asked
Speech impairment
Poor sense of smell/taste
Mental health
Dementia(s)/cognitive impairment
Non-English speaker
Chronic or serious illness
Partially sighted
Developmental condition
Restricted hand movement
Pensionable age
Physical impairment
Unable to answer door
Learning difficulties
Anxiety or depression
Heart condition
Living alone
Breathing difficulties
Receive disability benefits

EDF’s application form has the highest number of options related to medical conditions (20 in total) with British Gas and Utilita featuring the lowest (13).  EDF also features options which cover multiple medical conditions (e.g. 'breathing difficulties', 'disability benefits') more frequently than other suppliers. SSE has the highest number of options for learning and mental health related conditions (including 'dyslexia', 'autism', 'learning difficulties' and 'anxiety/depression').

There is some overlap within options, which could be confusing. For example, SSE lists both ‘developmental condition’ and ‘autism’ separately, even though the latter is a type of the former. Another example is the ‘mental ill health’ and ‘anxiety/depression’ options, again found in the SSE form. It is not clear if customers should tick both or only the more specific option.

All organisations feature options to indicate older age, however they specify a variety of different ages as the lower threshold, including:  60+, 65+, 'pensionable age' or 'pensioner'.  British Gas have two separate options relating to older age ('pensionable age (65 and over)' and 'age 75 and over').

There is some degree of consistency across organisations. This appears to be where specific conditions have been mentioned within the Ofgem guidance (for instance, 'restricted hand movement' appears in all but one form, in spite of the fact this is a very specific need).

Language Used

The language used across suppliers is very inconsistent. SSE uses ‘hard of hearing’ and ‘deaf’ to describe hearing loss-related needs, while other suppliers employ terms such as ‘hearing impairment’ or ‘hearing impaired’.

Some options have multiple potential meanings: ‘carer’ could refer to the respondent either needing a carer or being a carer for someone else.

All suppliers ask about speech and language difficulties and broader language barriers. However there is no shared way of asking whether a customer speaks English. Variations include: 'unable to communicate in English', 'language barrier' and 'foreign language speaker'.

‘Unable to communicate in English’ (used by Octopus and Ovo) is somewhat ambiguous. Customers might take it to mean having a different first language or having a speech condition. The requirements are quite different: with the former you could use an interpreter or multilingual support, with the latter you would need different support.

Medical Equipment3

Question asked
Question asked (with variations)
Question not asked
Stairlift/hoist/electric Bed
Heart/lung or ventilator machine
Dialysis, feeding pump automated medication
Nebuliser or apnoea monitor
Careline/telecare system
Medicine refridgeration
Water dependent
Medically dependent on showering/bathing
Oxygen concentrator
Oxygen use
MDE electric showering
Mains powered electric medical equip
Life support
Wheelchair user
Medical or other critical dependency

Options Offered

British Gas do not offer any specific options for types of medical equipment: they solely offer the generic category ‘mains powered electric medical equipment’.  All other organisations surveyed have more specific options.  These are broadly consistent across suppliers with some more limited options (e.g. ‘wheelchair’, ‘MDE electric showering’). 

Most organisations (bar British Gas and EDF) also ask about reliance on water.

Language Used

It is unclear what is meant by the ‘life support’ option used by EDF. Often the phrase ‘life support machine’ refers to a ventilator, but EDF also have a separate option for ‘heart and lung ventilators’. It could mean life support as a condition or set of needs but that seems too broad for the PSR.

Temporary Changes

In a rare show of unanimity, all suppliers offer the same options for temporary changes.

Question asked
Young adult
householder <18
Children age 5
and under
Temporary life change (bereavement/pregnancy)
Post hospital recovery

Other Questions

Question asked
Question not asked
Additional presence preferred
Regular meter readings
Move meter to support access
Extra time to answer door
Female presence preferred
Duplicate bill to family
Power of attorney
Financial difficulties


All suppliers offered the option of setting up a password or PIN. This is usually so a technician can state this password as an additional security measure on home visits. Two suppliers required a 6-letter password, one an 8-letter password and one a 10-letter password.  A final supplier did not specify length.  An unfortunate side effect of this variation is that if an individual were to move supplier, they may need to change their password and remember a new one. (Note: not shown in an infographic.)

Life Scenarios

Varying from the multiple choice standard, Shell veer into first person narratives. In their ‘Nominee Scheme’ section of the form, they feature an additional tick box option: ‘I can be easily confused and worried by communications from my energy supplier’. When asking about meter support they offer: ‘I have a prepayment meter and no-one in my household is able to safely read it or top it up’.

Accessibility Information4

Question asked
Question asked (with variations)
Question not asked
Large print letter
Alternative language: please specify
Black and white letter
Colour contrast
Arial font
Large print letter in black and white

Organisations vary on including accessibility questions on their PSR form. Ovo offers seven different accessibility options for receiving information, while Shell offers a single broad range checkbox.


Suppliers diverge considerably in what information they collect on their customers to register them for Priority Services support.

On our travels we encountered the aspiration to create a more standardised or universal PSR. Initiatives like the Vulnerability Registration Service and Experian’s Support Hub aim in this direction. In the future we are keen to explore the user experience of these services and how they aid vulnerable customers.  

In the meantime, we hope this analysis will prove useful if you are looking to improve the experience of vulnerable energy customers. Any questions or comments, contact We’d love to hear from you!

  1. SSE was acquired by Ovo Energy in 2020.  They hadn't completed their move over when we started this research and were still registering people to their PSR. We’ve included them in this analysis as their approach was interesting with many mental health and developmental condition-type questions.
  2. Some questions have been condensed in the infographics. Numbers referenced in the discussion refer to the full options as available on the questionnaires, but the infographics demonstrate a condensed version for brevity and ease of visualisation. Full original data is available on request.
  3. 'Heart/lung machine & ventilator' is the most common formulation of question regarding this equipment. However EDF separates these questions into: 'heart/lung machine' and 'ventilator'.
  4. Octopus and British Gas do not ask about accessibility. Shell only offers a general ‘accessible information’ needs tick box if the customer has earlier selected that they have a visual impairment. This does not mean they do not record this information elsewhere, where these questions did not appear on their forms we were not able to verify what (or if) they ask about accessible information.

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